Elections carried through in 08/02 had installed a government conservative led for Adolphe Thiers. The defeat and the election of the new government had produced a wave of protests from 24/02. In 01/03, as part of the peace accord, prussianas forces had occupied the castles of defense of Paris. The new government was established in Versailles. In 18/03 Thiers organized a great military action to reestablish the control of Paris; the operation was a failure: part of the Garde Nationale if rebelled and entered into an alliance it the rebels; the government had to come back running toward Versailles. A committee of the Garde Nationale assumed the control of the city; it was the beginning of the Commune.

In 22/03 forces conservatives (' ' friends of ordem' ') they had organized a protest march that violently was exhausted by the Garde Nationale. In day 26 the new government of communards was elect; in the ownership, in 28, 64 men with red braces in the arms indicated the representation of the commune: 19 members of the Garde Nationale, 25 jacobinos, 9 blanquistas; 20 followers of Proudhon; but 2 of them had heard to say of Karl Marx. Christiansen detaches other curious characteristics of the group: it has two militant msticos, Julio Allix and Jules Babick (founding of the fusionismo); a professional player of billiards, a proprietor of brothel, a painter and a composer of success, Jean-Baptiste Clement. Curiously, none of them was laborer. The president, Charles Beslay, had little executive authority; most of the power was exerted for committees. From 01 of April it had new shocks with troops of Versailles; in day 03 it had an offensive ambitious person to capture the seat of government conservative; great a failure. The church catholic, seen as likeable to the versalheses, suffered persecutions; diverse priests had been imprisoned. Bismarck, as part of the pressure to sign one treat one to definitive peace with the French government, kept canals diplomatists opened in the Commune.